Function of DNA demethylation during plant reproduction
|演題||Function of DNA demethylation during plant reproduction|
|講演者||Prof. Robert L. Fischer（Department of Plant and Microbial Biology, University of California, Berkeley, CA USA
|場所||Large seminar room|
The Arabidopsis thaliana central cell, the companion cell of the egg, undergoes DNA demethylation before fertilization, but the targeting preferences, mechanism, and biological significance of this process remain unclear. We find that active DNA demethylation mediated by the DEMETER DNA glycosylase accounts for demethylation in the central cell and preferentially targets small, AT-rich, and nucleosome-depleted euchromatic transposable elements. Localized central cell DNA demethylation results in localized hypomethylation in Arabidopsis endosperm, which contributes to gene imprinting in the endosperm. The vegetative cell, the companion cell of sperm, also undergoes DEMETER-dependent demethylation of similar sequences, and lack of DEMETER in vegetative cells causes reduced small RNA–directed DNA methylation of transposons in sperm. Our results demonstrate that demethylation in companion cells reinforces transposon methylation in plant gametes and likely contributes to stable silencing of transposable elements across generations. We also find that that localized hypomethylation in rice endosperm occurs solely on the maternal genome, preferring regions of high DNA accessibility. Maternally expressed imprinted genes are enriched for hypomethylation at putative promoter regions and transcriptional termini and paternally expressed genes at promoters and gene bodies, mirroring our results in A. thaliana. Our data indicate that localized hypomethylation of maternal endosperm DNA is conserved in flowering plants.
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